Science of the Absolute did 2

 

 

DARSANA-MALA

  

A GARLAND OF VISIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE

  

VI. KARMA-DARSANAM (VISION OF ACTION)

 

1. atmaiva mayaya karma karoti bahurupadhrk asangah svaprakaso'pi nidrayamiva taijasah

 

It is indeed the Self, though self-luminous
And detached, that through negativity
Does action bearing many forms,
Like the dream-agent in sleep.

 

ASANGA SVAPRAKASAH-API, although detached and Self-luminous,
NIDRAYAM TAIJASAH IVA, like the dream-agent in sleep,
ATMA-EVA BAHURUPADHRIK, the Self itself, bearing many forms,
MAYAYA KARMA KAROTI, by means of its negative principle does action

 

Because the Self, like the sky, is without taint and because it is Self-luminous like the sun, it cannot be reasonably thought of as capable of any action. In reality the Self does not do any action. If we now examine what it is that acts, we have to say it is Maya, because it is of the order of inert matter. It is not capable of any action independent of the Self. Therefore, because it is only capable of acting by the presence of the Self and is not different from the Self, and because for accomplishing any action there is nothing else, what effects all the various forms of action is the Self. That is to say, it is quite legitimate to think that it is the Self that effects all actions through Maya. In the state of sleep it is within everybody's experience that the subtle dream-agent is able to accomplish all action without possessing any outward organs of action. What the dream-agent accomplishes is experienced as if it is real, as long as the dream lasts. It becomes clear when coming out of the state of sleep that the work accomplished by the dream-agent is not real, but only apparent or virtual. The term bahurupadhrik (bearing many forms) is intended here to include within its scope all possible forms of action, the purport being that there is no action that is not attributed to the Self.

 

2. manye vadami grhnami srnomitiyadirupatah kriyate karma paramatmana cittendriyatmana

 

"I think, I speak, I grasp, I hear."
In forms such as these are actions accomplished
By the supreme Self, (which is also)
The Self of pure reason and the senses.

 

PARAMATMANA MANVE VADAMI GRIHNAMI, by the supreme Self  "I speak, I grasp",
SRINOMI-ITYADI RUPATAH," I hear", in such forms,
KARMA KRIYATE, actions are accomplished,
CITENDRIYATMANA, by the Self of pure reason and the senses (having the form of ego-sense with motor senses)

 

When action is accomplished it is the Self that remains and as the inner organs and the motor organs accomplishes all works. That is to say, it is the one Self as the reasoning Self (cidatma) that accomplishes acts of thought by saying to itself, "I think," and in the form of speech accomplishes the act of saying, "I speak", which is action in the form of the spoken word. As the Self of the hand accomplishes the action of taking which is of the form of grasping, and as the Self of hearing accomplishes the work in the form of "I hear." By reference to actions such as "I think" etc., we have to take it that all functions such as rising, falling, contracting, expanding and moving are also to be supposed. Because there is nothing other than the Self and because it is impossible that anything that is inert can accomplish any action, it is the ultimate Self (which is of the form of the reasoning Self with the senses), that accomplishes all actions, as expressly to be understood in this verse. 

 

3. atmaivah karmanah purvamanyat kincinna vidyate tatah svenaiva karmani kriyante nijamayaya
 
Prior to action, it is the Self (that exists);
There is nothing else at all.
Through the Self, by its own negative principle,.
By itself are accomplished all actions.
 
KARMANAH PURVAM, prior to action,
ATMA-EVA VIDYATE, it is the Self that exists,
ANYAT KINCIT NA, there is nothing else at all,
TATAH, through it,
SVENA-EVA, by the Self itself,
NIJAMAYAYA, by its own negative principle,
KARMANI KRIYANTE, (all) action is accomplished
 
Prior to action there is only the Self and nothing else. Therefore it is that very Self which accomplishes all action through its Maya. Any action accomplished posteriorly cannot possibly arise from anything else. If we say that before the tree there was the seed, is it necessary to assert again that the seed caused the tree? The Upanishads also support such a view when they say that existence was what was there in the beginning. In other words this was in the beginning the pure Self. 

 

4. saktirasyamanah kacid durghata na prthak svatah tayaivaropyate karma nikhilam niskriyatmani
 
From the Self, not different from itself
There exists a certain undefinable specificatory power
By that (power), all actions
Are falsely attributed to the actionless Self.
 
ATMANAH, from the Self,
SVATAH NA PRTHAK, not different from itself,
DURGATAH, an undefinable,
KACID SAKTIH ASTI, there exists a certain (specificatory) power,
TAYA-EVA, by that (power),
AROPYATE, is falsely attributed,
NIKHILAM KARMA, all action,
NISHKRIYATMANI, in the actionless Self.
 
The Self has a specificatory power which is not different from itself and is undefinable. It is because of this specificatory power that all actions are attributed to the Self. Because the Self is actionless no action can be compatible with it. Then how is it we say the Self performs action? We are obliged to answer that Maya is the cause of all action and is the specificatory power of the Self. It is also incongruous to say that Maya, which is by itself non-intelligent, is the cause of action, because it is impossible that there is anything outside the Self. We are forced to admit that Maya is not different from the Self. On closer examination we see that it (i.e. Maya) is a non-existent principle. Thus when looked at in one way it has agency, and when looked at in another way it has not agency. When viewed in one sense it is existent and in another sense it is non-existent. On further analysis it is also seen to be indeterminate. When viewed in one way it is capable of occupying a place in the Self which cannot in principle give any place to anything outside it; and when viewed in another way it has no existence in the Self. In one way it is different from the Self, and in another way it is non-different from the Self taken as a whole as what is unpredicable and indeterminate. It is because of these qualities that it is undefinable and unpredicable. It is this very Self that attributes all actions to the Self which is actionless. It is also by this very Self remaining as desire (icca) wisdom (jnana) and action (kriya) that the Self is made to be an agent or non-agent of action capable of taking on all forms. When it is subject to desire the Self is the actor. In the form of wisdom it is actionless. When it is in action it can assume all forms. 

 

5. sarvada'sanga evatma 'jnataya karma sangivat karoti na karomiti na jnah karmasu sajjate
 
The Self is always detached indeed.
One performs action as if attached due to ignorance.
The wise man, saying "I do nothing,"
Is not interested in action.
 
ATMA, the Self,
SARVADA, always,
ASANGA EVA, is detached indeed,
AJNATAYA, due to ignorance,
SANGIVAT, as if attached,
KARMA KAROTI, does the action,
JNAH, the wise man,
NA KAROM-ITI, saying "I do nothing",
NA KARMASU SAJJATE, is not interested in action
 
Here the word atma comprises both the living Self (jivatma) and the supreme Self (paramatma) without distinction. Like the supreme Self, the living Self is also always without attachment. It is because of ignoring the living Self as well as the supreme Self that it seems as if they participate in action. But wise men who have attained to true knowledge even when engaged in action know for certain that they are not performing any action at all. They never have any attachment to action. What has been praised in the Bhagavad Gita is the wise man who sees action in inaction and inaction in action. In reality there is no action at all in the Self. With those actions seeming to be present the Self has no relation. "But then where do these seeming actions exist? Who performs them? On what basis are they founded?" When such questions are asked, we say that because there is no possible place outside the Self there is no possibility of anything remaining outside it. We are obliged to admit that all actions merely seemingly exist in the Self and that the agency of all actions must be attributed to the Self. Furthermore the basis of all actions is the same Self and when it takes all possible forms it still remains as the great actor. 

 

6. jvalati jvalano vayurvati varsati varidah dharatma san dharati khalveko vahati vahini
 
The one (Self) alone as fire (it) burns,
As wind (it) blows,
As water (it) rains,
As earth (it) supports (and) as a river (it) flows.
 
EKAH KHALU, the one (Self) alone,
JVALANAH SAN JVALATI, as fire it
burns,VAYUH SAN VATI, as wind (it) blows,
VARIDAH SAN VARSHATI, as water it rains,
DHARATMA SAN DHARATI, as earth it supports,
VAHINI SAN VAHATI, as a river it flows.
 
It is the one Self that takes the form of the five elementals, each manifesting itself as the gross object by means of which all actions are accomplished. 

 

7. urdhvam prano hyadho'panah khalveko yati niskriyah nadyantarale dhamati krandoti spandati sthitah
 
The one (Self) alone, remaining actionless,
Moves (as) upward and downward vital tendencies
Within the nervous centres, indeed,
It beats, murmurs and pulsates.
 
EKAH KHALU, the one (Self) alone,
NISHKRIYAH STHITAH, remaining actionless,
PRANAH (SAN) URDHVAN, as upwards vital tendency,
APANAH (SAN) ADAH, as downward vital tendency,
YATI, moves,
NADYANTARALE, within the nervous centres,
DHAMATI KRANDATI SPHANDATI HI, indeed beats, murmurs and pulsates
 
Inside the body, although remaining in the form of vital tendencies which accomplishes organic actions such as breathing in and out, the Self remains one and actionless. 

 

8. astijanmarddhiparinatyapaksayavinasanam sadbhavamiha yo yati sa nanyo'vikriyatmanah
 
Here (in this visible world), as what exists,
Grows, transforms, decreases and attains its end-
As subject to six forms of becoming-
 
(That) is no other than the actionless Self.
 
IVA, here (in this visible world),
YAH, what,
ASTI JANMAR ADHI PARINATYA PAKSHAYA VINASANAM, as what exists, is born, grows, is transformed, decreases, attains its end,
SHADBHAVAM, six forms,
YATI, what is subject to,
SAH, that,
AVIKRIYATMANAH, from the actionless Self,
ANYAH NA, is no other
 
All the things we see in the world are subject to six forms of becoming. All these things subject to transformation are also subject to destruction and therefore they are unreal. It is only because of the existence of a changeless Self composed of pure existence that there is a semblance of the reality of things and their transformations. It is by dependence on such a changeless Self that the six transformations are possible. If there is no Self there is no world. It is for this reason that it has been said the world consists of the Self with its six transformations. 

 

9. svayam kriyante karmani karanairindriyairapi aham tvasangah kutastha iti janati kovidah
 
By means of the inner organs and the senses
Actions become Self-accomplished.
However, the wise man knows,
"I am the unattached, inner well-founded one"
 
KARANAIH-INDRIYAIH-API, by the means of the inner organ and the senses,
KARMANI SVAYAM KRIYANTE, actions become Self-accomplished, 
 
KOVIDAH TU, however, the wise man,
AHAM ASANGAH KUTASTHA ITI JANATI, knows "I am the unattached inner well-founded one"
 
The Self does not act and, if we say it is the inner organ and the senses that act because they are inert, they cannot accomplish actions as they are only the means of action. But if we examine how actions originate, we conclude that they are beginningless and accomplished by the presence of the Self ; in reality the Self does not act at all. The Self remains apart and is well-founded. The man using the double process of dialectical reasoning (uha-apoha) knows this reality with certitude.

 

10. drsyatvadbhasyamaham apyato'ham suktirangavat adhyastameka evadya svopi sarvoparisthitah
 
Because of being an object of experience,
Even the "I" is a conditioning factor,
Superimposed like the mother-of-pearl gleam.
Above everything else, today and tomorrow one alone is.
 
AHAM API, even the "I",
DRISYATVAT, because of being the object of experience,
BHASYAM, is a conditioning factor,
ATAH, because of this,
AHAM, I,
SUKTI-RANGAVAT, like the silver gleam in the mother-of-pearl,
ADHYASTAM, is superimposed,
ADYA SVOPI, today and tomorrow (i.e. always),
SARVOPARI-STHITAH, fixed above all things,
EKAH EVA, even one (is).
 
What is the object of consciousness is superimposition. (This verity has already been explained.) In other words, all things that constitute objects of consciousness are unreal. Even when so considered they have their basis in something real in order to express the unreal. Here the example of silver in the mother-of-pearl is given. When there is the superimposition of silver on the mother-of-pearl, although there is no actual silver it seems to be there. In spite of this the unreal semblance of silver is really based on the reality of the mother-of-pearl. In a similar way all actions and the egoism causing them are superimposed on the supreme Self. It is the supreme Self that is alone real, remaining one and eternal. The whole world consisting of action seems to be merely a superimposition on the Self. By the expression "fixed above all things" it is indicated that the Self is pure and other-worldly, transcending time and space as well as pleasure and pain, and that it is superior to all things.

 

 

VII. JNANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF AWARENESS)

 

1. jnanamekam hi nirupadhikam sopadhikam ca tat ahankaridhinam yajjnanam tannirupadhikam 

 

Awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
There is also the conditioned.
Awareness without egoism, etc.
That is the unconditioned.
 
JNANAM-EKAM NIRUPADHIKAM HI, awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
SOPADHIKAM CA TAT, that is also the conditioned,
YAT JNANAM AHAMKARADI-HINAM, awareness without egoism, etc.
TAT NIRUPADHIKAM,that is the unconditioned
 
By awareness we mean that which is in the form of mental consciousness inside the bodies of animals. This enables mental consciousness to have the awareness of all things within the intelligence. This awareness, which is an attribute of the Self, remains as one in its true state without any activities or conditionings of the intelligence. In spite of this, when in practical life it is connected with egoism and other operations of the mind it becomes conditioned. When it is unconnected with such factors as egoism it remains unconditioned.

 
 
2. ahantaya'ntarbahirasti yadevamidantaya bhanavrttya'nvitam yattu jnanam sopadhikam
 
That which is accompanied by egoism as if inside,
And which again as qualified by this-ness is
Accompanied by conscious activity,
Such awareness is to be understood as conditioned.
 
YAT, that which,
AHANTAYA BHANA VRITTYANVITAM ANTAH, accompanied by the active consciousness of egoism inside,
EVAM YATTU, that by which again,
IDANTAYA (BHANAVRITTYANVITAM CA) ASTI, as if accompanied by active consciousness (thisness) as outside,
(TAT) JNANAM, (that) awareness,
SOPADHIKAM (ITI) MATAM, is understood to be conditioned
 
The conditioning of awareness consists of function and activity. This functioning has been already stated in Chapter 5, where it is present with its own specific and generic aspects and with subtle and gross differences. Beginning from awareness of outside objects such as "this is a pot", "this is a cloth", and likewise, to awareness of inner 'objects' such as "I am the Absolute", all functions are to be included within the scope of the varieties mentioned above. All functional activities are the conditionings of that one awareness which treats them as objects of consciousness. This awareness, although in reality independent of conditionings, when functionally referring to corresponding objects is called conditioned awareness.

 
 
3. anatmanamahankaradinam yenanubhuyate saksi tadatmajnanam syadyenaivamrtamasyate
 
That by which are experienced all things
Of the non-Self, such as egoism, etc.,
And even by which immortality is enjoyed,
(As) the Witness, is Self-awareness.
 
ANATMANAM, of things pertaining to the non-self,
AHAMKARADINAM, such as egoism, etc.,
SAKSHI, the witness (i.e. the Self),
YENA-ANUBHUYATE, what is experienced,
YENA-EVA, by which even,
AMRITAM, immortality,
ASYATE, is enjoyed,
TAT-ATMA-JNANAM SYAD, that is (absolute) Self-awareness
 
There is a Witness remaining within the bodies of all beings able to take cognizance of all non-Self factors beginning with egoism and reaching out to external entities like pots and cloth. At the time of deep sleep this Witness is not subject to any change and is capable of cognizing the subtlest factors in consciousness. Such a Witness is no other than the Self. The awareness by which the witnessing Self is experienced is Self-knowledge. It is the final conclusion of Vedanta that liberation is attained through Self-knowledge. By the use of the word eva in the text, it is intended to point out the primary nature of this sole means of liberation. Such an awareness of the Self could be described as unconditioned awareness.

 


4. ahankaradi karyam yadanatmakamasankhyakam yenavagamyate'natmajnanam tadavadharyate 

 

As innumerable effects of egoism, etc.,
What as pertaining to the non-Self
Attains to awareness, that is said to be
Awareness of the non-Self.
 
YAT, what,
ANATMAKAM, as pertaining to the non self,
ASANKHYAKAM, as innumerable,
AHANKAR ADI KARYAM, as effects such as egoism etc.,
YENA, by what,
AVAGAMYATE, awareness attains,
TAT, that,
ANATMAJNANAM (ITI), as awareness of the non-self,
AVADHARYATE, it is said to be
 
The non-Self factors mentioned in the previous verse, such as the effects of egoism sense objects etc., are innumerable. They pertain to the non-Self, where all objects of knowledge are found. Without knowing the witnessing Self which is capable of understanding all the innumerable effects, what cognizes only these objective entities is the opposite of what has been described in the previous verse and constitutes the awareness of the non-Self. This awareness of the non-Self is conditioned.



5. yathavadvastuvijnanam rajjutattvabodhavat yattadyatharthavijnanamayatharthamato'nyatha
 
Knowing things as they really are,
As when one attains to the truth of the rope,
What makes for such is true awareness,
Wrong awareness is what is otherwise.
 
RAJJU-TATTVA-AVABODHAVAT, like the right knowledge about the rope,
YATHAVAT-VASTU-VIJNANAM, awareness of things as they really are,
YAT, which,
TAT-YATHARTHA-VIJNANAM, that is right awareness,
ATHAH ANYATHE, what is different from this,
AVATHARTHAM (CA BHAVATI), wrong awareness (too becomes)
 
It is possible to have a right or wrong awareness of a rope. That awareness which is capable of recognizing in the rope its own rope-character is right awareness; while that awareness which is capable of mistaking the same rope for a snake due to visual defects in contrary fashion is wrong awareness. Knowing things-as-they-are is distinguished as right awareness and cognizing them as-they-are-not is wrong awareness. These two forms of awareness are of a conditioned order.



6. yatsannidhyadeva sarvam bhasate svayameva tat pratyaksajnanamiticaparoksamiti laksyate
 
By the very presence of which everything looms
In consciousness by itself,
That awareness is indicated as empirical awareness,
And also as non-transcendental awareness.
 
YAT-SANNIDHYAD-EVA, by the very presence of which,
SARVAM SVAYAM-EVA BHASATE, everything looms in consciousness by itself,
TAT, that,
PRATYAKSHA-JNANAM-ITI, as empirical awareness,
APAROKSHAM-ITI CA, and also as non-transcendental awareness,
LAKSHYATE, is indicated
 
One and the same right awareness about a certain thing can be gained in two different ways which are: by inference or valid testimony, and also by the relation of the object with its causes. The first way is non-immediate but is accomplished by obstructing mediating factors. Such indirect knowledge is designated as mediate. The second type of right awareness has two names which are: perception (pratyaksha), and the non-transcendental or immediate (aparoksha), Here there are no obstructing elements. It is by this kind of awareness that we gain direct knowledge of things. Yet, even this is of a conditioned order.



7. yaya'nusadhakam sadhyam miyate inanarupaya vrittya sainumitissabacaryasamakarajanyaya
 
That function of awareness by which
The means to an end is appraised
And which arises but of associative innate disposition,
That is inferential awareness.
 
YAYA, that by which,
SHACARYA-SANISKARA-JANYAYA, as originating in associative innate disposition,
JNANARUPAYA, having the form of awareness,
VRITTYA, by function,
ANUSADHAKAM SADHYAM, means for ends,
MIYATE, are brought into awareness,
SA-ANUMITI, this is inferential (awareness).
 
That awareness establishing certitude through the use of specific marks of recognition (linga) is inferential awareness. When we see smoke in the kitchen we conclude that there is fire there. By constant association we understand that whenever there is smoke there is also fire. Thus we understand that in all places where there is smoke there is fire. This is associative awareness. It is described as associative and refers to innate dispositions of memory factors because of the necessary and eternal connection between the smoke and fire as seen in the kitchen. This kind of associative awareness pertaining to memory dispositions takes the form of functional activity.

Because of this functional activity established by associative memory factors we are able to be aware of the fact that there is also fire when we see smoke rising out of a distant mountainside. The awareness arising in this manner is called inference. Here the effect is the smoke and the cause is fire. The fire having the status of being the means is inferred by the effect which is the smoke and is compatible with it. Such an awareness is none other than inferential awareness.



8. gatva samipam meyasya miyate srutalaksanah yaya samvitsopamitirmrgo'yamiti rupaya
 
On going near to an object to be ascertained,
What - in the form of "this is the animal
known by such marks"-
Is the functional basis for certitude,
That is (said to be) analogical awareness.
 
MEYASYA, of the object to be known,
SAMIPAM, near,
GATVA, going,
SRUTA-LAKSHANAH MRIGAH-AYAM-ITI RUPAYA, in the form of " this is the animal having the marks I heard about",
YAYA (VRITTYA), by what (functional activity),
(MEYAH) MIYATE, (what is to be understood) is brought into awareness,
SA SAMVIT UPAMITIH, this is analogical awareness.
 
A man who has not seen a certain rare animal, on being told about it by another who has seen it, or on reading about it in a book, when he keeps his mind on the specific characteristics (of the rare animal) i.e. keeping in his mind certain analogous traits between the unseen rare animal and some other familiar animal; if he should then go to the forest where such a rare animal has its habitat and then sees it, he gets a functional form of awareness as indicated by the sentence. "This is the animal having the marks I have heard about". This kind of awareness resulting under such a circumstance is awareness by analogy. The word meya means the object to which something is compared. It (i.e. meya) refers to the object which is the referent for the analogy. When we say gavayam (cowness) is what resembles a cow, the latter is the referent analogy, while the former is a referring abstraction made from the actual cow. We have to understand here that in all cases where the mind operates from the object of analogy to that to which it refers is the awareness to be distinguished as awareness by analogy.

 


9. aham mameti jnanam yadidam taditi yacca tat jivajnanam tadaparamindriyajnanamisyate 

 

That awareness of "I" and "mine"
And that other as "this" or "that"-
The former as vital awareness, and the latter
As sense awareness, is declared.
 
AHAM MAMA-ITI JNANAM YAT, that awareness expressing itself as "I" and "mine",
TAT JIVA-JNANAM, that as vital awareness,
APARAM IDAM TAD-ITI JNANAM YAT, and that which also expresses itself as "this" and "that",
TAT INDRIYA JNANAM CA, that as sense awareness,
ISHYATE, is declared.
 
Living creatures have awareness (in regard to themselves) in the form of 'I" and "mind". This does not depend upon any of the external organs such as the ear, etc. Even deaf and dumb people are known to have this kind of awareness. This is commonly known throughout the world. Because of such awareness depending solely on the inner vital elements, such awareness as "I'' and "mine", depending on the vital principle, has been named vital awareness. We have to distinguish such vital awareness from awareness given to the senses which expresses itself in the form of "this" and "that" and is independent of any vitalistic elements being only dependent on the senses.



10. om tatsaditi nirdistam brahmataiyamupagattam kalpanadivihinam yattatparajnanamiryate
 
Designated as AUM, THAT EXISTS,
Attained to unity of Absolute and Self,
Devoid of willing and other functions -
That is said to be the ultimate awareness.
 
AUM-TAT-SAD-ITI NIRDISHTAM, that which is designated as "aum-that-exists",
BRAHMATMA AIKYAM, the unity of the Self and the Absolute,
UPAGATTAM, having attained,
KALPANADI VIHINAM, devoid of all willing,
(JNANAM) YAT, what awareness there is,
TAT-PARAJNANAM (ITI) IRYATE, that is said to be the ultimate awareness.
 
It is the same unconditioned awareness of the first verse that is also treated in this verse. The word Aum is what has been conferred by ancient sages (rishis) as designating the Absolute in the form of pure awareness. The sruti (original Vedic texts), smriti (traditional secondary texts) and puranas (epic or heroic lore) all present the same wisdom in applied form, and the word Aum is well known to be used in these texts as denoting a meaning everywhere referable to the Absolute. In other words, 'unlimited', 'absolute', and 'awareness' are the same as Aum, and this is the Absolute. Such phrases as "AUM the one eternal letter is the Absolute", "AUM is all that" and "Aum is the Absolute", are phrases indicating the same truth in the above body of literature. Patanjali also declares, "That Absolute remaining always untouched by harsh or painful activities is indicated by the descriptive sentence, "the uttered syllable Aum", and "The Lord has many names". Of all, the most superior and general in applicability, easy to utter by all persons, and the object of meditation by everyone is the syllable Aum. The word Aum has also the meaning of general assent. Any name applied to the Lord (isvara) who is of the form of pure consciousness is valid, when referred to by Aum. Because it is not capable of being referred to by any name at all, it is beyond the reach of mind and speech, it has been indicated by the relative pronoun "that" (tat). By "that" something is meant which is beyond all predications. Being eternal and essentially of the stuff of pure consciousness, it is called existent (sat). This term means it has an existent reality in all the three aspects of time. The philosophical principle indicated here is that all other things are not real, and the only reality is the Absolute. Therefore, what has been described as "Aum" or "that" or "existent" are three perspectives of the same. Thus the three syllables "Aum-tat-sat" have been accepted in such authentic literature as the Vedas as well known terms for absolute awareness (which is the same as the Lord or the Absolute). The ultimate goal of awareness is to establish the identity between the living Self and the Absolute. Within the scope of such awareness, there is neither room for such notions as brahma (the creator) nor for the willing of the phenomenal world. Therefore because of its superior nature and its identity with the supreme Self it has here been referred to as ultimate awareness.

 

 

VIII. BHAKTI DARSANAM -VISION BY CONTEMPLATION

 

1. bhaktiratmanusandhanamatma'nandaghano yatah atmanamanusandhatte sadaivatmavidatmana
 
Meditation on the Self is contemplation,
Because the Self consists of bliss,
A knower of the Self meditates by the Self,
Upon the Self, for ever.
 
ATMANUSANDHAMNAM, meditation on the Self,
BHAKTIH, contemplation,
YATAH, because,
ATMA, the Self,
ANANDAGHANAH (BHAVATI), consists of bliss,
TATAH, for that reason,
ATMAVID, a knower of the Self,
ATMANAM, the Self,
ATMANA, by the Self,
SADA-EVA, forever always,
ANUSANDHATTE, meditates upon.
 
Bhakti is meditation on the Self. The Bhagavad Gita (III.17) underlines the truth that a man who is always interested in the Self and satisfied in it has nothing else to do. Sankara in the  "Vivekachudamani" (Verse 32) also says that bhakti is meditation on the true form of one's Self. The reason why such great importance is given to contemplation on the Self is stated in this verse by the fact that the very nature of the Self consists of bliss. It goes without saying that it is the high value of bliss which deserves to be meditated upon. All living beings are naturally disposed to such meditation. Therefore the quality of representing this high value is what makes the Self fit to be meditated upon. In the world all people who have attained to Self-realization are in truth those who contemplate the Self.



2. anusandhiyate brahma brahmanandaghanam yatah sada brahmanusandhanam bhaktirityavagamyate
 
The Absolute is meditated upon
Because it consists of bliss.
Constant meditation on the Absolute
Is thus known as contemplation.
 
BRAHMA, the Absolute,
ANUSANDHIYATE, is meditated upon,
YATAH, because of this,
BRAHMA, the Absolute,
ANANDAGHANAM, consists of bliss,
SADA BRAHMA-ANUSANDHANAM, constant meditation on the Absolute,
BHAKTIHITI-AVAGAMYATE, is thus known as contemplation.
 
The Self is the same as the Absolute, and the meditation of the Self is therefore the same as the meditation of the Absolute. It is because the Absolute consists of bliss that a knower of the Self contemplates the Absolute. Such a constant and unbroken meditation is what is well known as contemplation.



3. anandameva dhyayanti sarve duhkham na kascana yadanandaparam dhyanam bhaktirityupadisyate
 
It is even bliss that all do meditate,
No one at all (meditates) suffering.
That which is meditation of bliss,
As contemplation it is thought.
 
SARVE, all,
ANADAM-EVA, even bliss,
DHYAYANTI, do meditate,
KASCANA, no-one,
DUHKAM, suffering,
NA (DHYAYATI), does not (meditate),
YAT, that which,
ANANDAPARAM, as pertaining to bliss,
DHYANAM, meditation,
(TAT), (that),
BHAKTIH-ITI, as contemplation,
UPADISYATE, it is taught.
 
All creatures in the world desire happiness. There is not even one living being wishing for suffering. As for the Absolute it is made of bliss. Therefore, the goal desired by all is the contemplation of the Absolute which is the contemplation of bliss, and this is (true) contemplation. Such is the teaching of all knowers of the Self.



4. atmaiva brahma bhajati nanyamatmanamatmavit bhajatiti yadatmanam bhaktirityabhidhiyate
 
It is the Self alone that contemplates the Absolute;
The knower of the Self
Meditates on the Self, and not on any other.
That which is meditation on the Self
Is said to be contemplation.
 
ATMA-EVA BRAHMA, it is the Self alone that is the absolute,
ATMAVIT, the knower of the Self,
ATMANAM, on the Self,
BHAJATI, meditates,
ANYAM NA (BHAJATI), does not (meditate) any other,
ATMANAM, on the Self,
BHAJATI-ITI-YAT, that which is meditation,
(TAT)BHAKTIH-ITI, (that) as contemplation,
ABHIDHIYATE, is said to be.
 
It is because a wise man is a knower of the Self that he meditates on the Self. Not only does he meditate on the Self, but he meditates on nothing other than the Absolute consisting of existence, subsistence and value (i.e. bliss). He does not meditate on the inert and unreal non-Self which is the cause of suffering. He does not (even) meditate on the world. Because of meditating on the Self it is called bhakti or contemplation. So, the man who meditates on the Self is the real contemplative. The Self is the Absolute, and the knower of the Self is the same as the knower of the Absolute. This is the same as saying he is a true contemplative. The characteristics of such a knower of the Absolute will be further described in the final chapter.



5. ananda atma brahmeti namaitasyaiva tanyate iti niscitadhiryasya sa bhakta iti visrutah
 
Bliss, the Self and the Absolute
Are said to be the names of this alone.
In whom there is such sure awareness,
He as a contemplative is well known.
 
ANANDAH ATMA BRAHMA-ITI, bliss, the Self and the absolute,
ETASYA-EVA NAMA, are the names of this alone,
TANYATE, is said to be,
ITI, thus,
YASYA, of whom,
NISCTADHIH (ASTI), there (is) sure awareness,
SAH, he,
BHAKTAH IVA VISRUTAH, so as a contemplative is well known.
 
It is the same ultimate reality having the attributes of existence-subsistence-value which is also referred to as the Self, the Absolute or bliss. Such a certitude is called contemplation (bhakti). The man possessing this certitude is the real contemplative (bhakta). In this verse the truth of the great dictum (mahavakya), "This Self is the Absolute" is indicated. We know by this that the Self referred to is in the form of bliss (anandarupa). The correct understanding of the meaning of this dictum is true contemplation and the man possessing this knowledge is the true contemplative.



6. anando'hamaham brahma'tma'hamasmiti rupatah bhavena satatam yasya sa bhakta iti visrutah
 
"I am Bliss, I am the Absolute, I am the Self."
In whom, in such forms,
There is always creative imagination,
As a contemplative he is well known.
 
AHAM ANANDAHA-ASMI , "I am bliss",
AHAM BRAHMA (ASMI), "I am the Absolute",
AHAM ATMA (ASMI), "I am the Self",
ITI RUPATAH, in such forms,
YASYA, in whom,
SATATAM, always,
BHAVANA (ASTI), there (is) creative imagination,
SA BHAKTAH ITI VISRUTAH, as a contemplative he is well known.
 
As stated in the previous verse, a contemplative having conceptually and intellectually understood the truth of the great dicta like "I am Bliss," "I am the Absolute, "I am the Self," as referring to the same reality when he realizes himself to be the Absolute through his own inner experience (perceptually) this state is said to be the most superior kind of contemplation. The man attaining to this kind of contemplation is the best of contemplatives.



7. bharya bhajati bhartaram bhartta bharyam na svanandameva bhajati sarvopi visayastitam
 
The wife does not merely adore the husband,
Nor the husband merely adore the wife,
It is Self-bliss alone that they adore,
As lodged within every sensuous object.
 
BHARYA BHARTARAM, the wife, the husband,
NAKEVALAM BHAJATI, does not merely,
BHARTTA-BHARYAM, the husband the wife,
NA BHAJATI, does not merely adore,
SARVAH-API, even every,
VISHAYA-STHITAM, lodged within every sensuous object,
SVANANDAM EVA, it is even Self-bliss,
BHAJATI, (they) adore.
 
Here the commentary explains how ordinary people think that when a husband takes care of his wife who ministers to him, it is merely in the interest of the husband or wife that they do so. The truth is that whatever pleasure they derive from sense objects is really felt as pleasure by the Self alone. The ignorant man considers the source of pleasure as existing in things and is attracted to them. But the wise man finds the source of pleasure in himself, and sees the universality of such a pleasure. The well- known instance of the dialogue between Yajnavalkya and his wife Maitreyi found in the "Brihadaranyaka Upanishad" (IV.51ff) supports this point. (See pages 699-700 above).



8. evam pasyati kutrapi vidvanatmasukham vina na kincidaparam tasya bhaktireva gariyasi
 
For the wise man who sees
Thus at any place whatever,
There is nothing at all other than Self-bliss.
(Such) contemplation verily is the highest.
 
EVAM, thus,
VIDVAN, the wise man (of Self-knowledge),
KUTRAPI, at any place whatever,
ATMA SUKHAM VINA, other than Self-bliss,
APARAMKINCID (API), (even) a little of anything else,
NA PASYATI, does not see,
TASYA BHAKTIH-EVA, his contemplation verily,
GARIYASI, is most exalted.
 
In the same way as worldly people enjoy sensual pleasures on the basis of the bliss of the Self, so too the wise man enjoys Self-bliss everywhere. He does not see anything but Self-bliss in any object of interest. Because a wise man knows the unity of the living Self and the Supreme Self, the bliss he enjoys everywhere is known by him to belong to the Self. What is more, he treats without any difference all such bliss anywhere and in any creature as belonging to himself. In other words the bliss of the creature is identical with the bliss of the Self. The wise man understands this verity. Because he is capable of seeing all bliss as pertaining to the Absolute, his contemplation is called the most exalted.



9. lokasya pitari svasyagurau pitari matari atyasya sthapitari ca tatpathenaiva yatari
 
Towards the Father of the World, to one`s
Spiritual teacher, father, mother,
Towards the Founders of Truth, and
Towards those who walk in the same path;
 
LOKASYA PITARI, towards the father of the world,
SVASYA, to one's,
GURAU PITARI MATARI, spiritual teacher, father, mother,
SATYASYA STHAPITARI, towards the founders of truth,
TAT-PATHENA-EVAYATARI, towards those who walk in the same path.



10. niyantari nisiddhasya sarvesam hitakarttari yo'nurago bhaktiratra sa para paramatmani
 
Towards those who put down evil,
And those who do good to all -
What sympathy there is, is devotion here,
(While) what here belongs to the Self Supreme is the ultimate.
 
NISHIDHASYA NIYANATARI, towards those who put down evil (i.e. towards those who control (their subjects) from forbidden actions),
SARVESAM HITA KARTTARI (CA), (also) towards those who do good to all,
ANURANGAH YA, what sympathy there is,
SA BHAKTIH, that is devotion,
ATRA PARAMATMANI, what belongs to the Supreme Self,
SA PARA, that is the ultimate (devotion).
 
All humans need adoration to a god for the sake of securing their happiness here as well as hereafter. Those who desire liberation also need the same for the sake of the purification of the Self. It is also important that all persons should respect their spiritual teacher with the same respect given to God, because of their help in removing ignorance and bestowing the light of wisdom. It is the duty, moreover, of every human being to have respect and regard for their mother and father because they caused his birth and suffered many inconveniences for his sake thereafter.
 
When truth and righteousness decline in the world there are people like Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Jesus who come for the regeneration of mankind to once again re-establish righteousness. There are also those who follow the footsteps of such men and who constitute good models. It is good that people have respect and regard for people who control and prohibit bad acts like murder, robbery, drunkenness and debauchery. By doing this they give protection to everybody and nurture goodness among men.
 
All the above-stated items are necessary to human life, and this is why we have set them forth as examples. In spite of this, however, what is indicated in this chapter as most important is devotion to the Supreme Self, being of the nature of existence, subsistence and value. All other devotions are customary or traditional only, but the one referring to the Supreme Self is the highest devotion.

 

  

IX. YOGA-DARSANAM (VISION OF MEDITATION)  

 

1. satatam yojayati yadyunakti ca cidatmani mano nirodharupo'yam sa yoga iti samsitah 

That which always unites the mind
With the reasoning Self, and also gets united with it,
And which is in the form of restraint,
That is praised as Yoga.
 
YAD, that which,
CIDATMANI, in the reasoning self (i.e. in the Absolute which is in the nature of wisdom)
MANAH, the mind,
SATATAM, always,
YOJAYATI, unites,
YUNAKTI CA, and gets united,
NIRODHA-RUPAH SAH AYAM, that which is of the form of restraint (of the mind),
YOGAH, Yoga,
ITI SAMSITAH, is praised to be.
 
The correct meaning of the word Yoga is the union of the mind, when rid of all gross of nescience, with the (reasoning) Self. This is Yoga or union. The mind has in it many activities which come under nescience etc. When all such activities have been countered by the means that have been indicated in the wisdom texts, and when the mind is thus made to unite with the pure Ultimate Self, such a branch of knowledge is called Yoga. The radical yuj is used in texts as meaning samadhi in the expression yuj-samadhau (union in samadhi) by Panini, the great ancient grammarian and linguistic authority, and we are therefore justified in treating Yoga and samadhi as pertaining to the same subject. 
 
The saying of Patanjali in one of his opening sutras that Yoga is the restraint of the mind, as well as the definition of Valmiki in the Yoga Vasishta which says that Yoga consists of the act or means of tranquilizing the mind, all indicate the same meaning of Yoga. Because Yoga mainly consists of restraint of the mind, it is referred to as consisting of this restraint in general terms. It is not enough however that the activities of the mind should be merely mechanistically restrained (in a unilateral sense), but it is also to be understood that the mind when restrained should be constantly joined to the reasoning Self (cidatma). What is more, such a union should also take place so as to justify the name of Yoga properly understood. 
 
 
 
2. na drashta darsanam drisyam vidyate yatra tatra hrit yojayedvasana yavadyogo´yamiti yogavit
 
Where the seer, the sight and the seen
Are not present, there the heart
Should be joined as long as incipient memory factors (are present);
Such is Yoga, (says) the knower of Yoga.
 
YATRA, where,
DRASHTA DARSANAM DRISYAM CA, the seer, the sight and the seen;
NA VIDYATE, are not present,
TATRA, there (i.e., in the ultimate Self);
HRIT, the heart (or mind);
YAVAT VASANA (VIDYATE), as long as incipient memory factors (are present);
YOJAYET, should be joined;
AYAM YOGA, such is Yoga;
ITI YOGAVIT (VADATI), (says) the knower of Yoga. 
 
The seer, the seen and the sight, or, in other words, the knower, knowledge and what is known are called in Vedanta triputi (tribasic prejudice). In the true form proper to the Self there is no triputi. When the outgoing activities of the mind have been restrained and the attitude of samadhi (peace) is reached, there is no room for the operation of triputi. In that state of peace, the form of the Self free from triputi becomes revealed without any hindrance. Patanjali has also described this stage as, "then takes place the attainment of the proper form of the seer". This form is free from triputi and is of the status of sat-cit-ananda (existence-subsistence-value or bliss). As soon as one comes out of the state of samadhi the tribasic prejudice (triputi) asserts itself and the many activities of the mind produce attachment and aversion and the consequent sensations of pleasure and pain. The incipient memory factors (vasanas) which remain in the inner faculty of the mind are the subtle and potential source causing all the varied activities of the mind. Therefore until such time as these vasanas are weakened and completely destroyed it is necessary to unite the mind with the Ultimate Self which is free from tribasic prejudice (triputi), and thus to practice (the art of) samadhi (i.e. the wisdom of supreme peace which is that of Yoga). It is such a kind of Yoga that has been stated by qualified persons who have experienced this type of peace as consisting of true Yoga. 

 

3. namarupamidam sarvam brahmaiveti viliyate yadbrahmani mano nityam sa yoga iti niscitah
 
All this consisting of name-form (knowing)
As Verily the Absolute, the mind ever merges
In the Absolute, what constitutes such
As Yoga is ascertained.
 
IDAM NAMA-RUPAM SARVAM, all this of name-form;
BRAHMA EVA ITI, as verily the Absolute,
MANAH, the mind,
NITYANI, always,
BRAHMANI, in the Absolute,
VILIYATE, gets merged,
(ITI)YAT, (such) what is,
SAH, that,
YOGAH ITI NISCITAH, as Yoga is ascertained.
 
As stated in the previous verse, it is not easy to restrain mental activity and to remain in the unconditioned and calm contemplation of the Absolute, fully free from tribasic prejudice (triputi) and the operation of the three nature modalities (triguna). It is difficult to remain always in a kind of peace which is without any mental activity at all. Even if we should repeat the word brahman (the Absolute) any number of times, the world of name-form made manifest by attributes does not disappear from being operative within consciousness. When the reasoning mind is distracted by interests of ordinary life consisting of worldly thoughts, the attainment of samadhi (peace) is not possible. Then how is it possible to accomplish such a Yoga?
 
This verse intends to give the answer to such a question for the aspirant who wishes spiritual progress through Yoga, and puts the question with an intense desire to know an alternative way. Instead of trying to see this visible world as consisting of name-form and thus as entirely false, it is recommended here as easier on the basis of the mahavakyas (great sayings) such as "Everything here is the Absolute," to look upon the whole phenomenal universe as consisting of the Absolute. It is not easy to turn from the long mental habit, enduring through many births, telling us the world is real. Even though to a discriminating mind the world is philosophically false, the appearance of the world as real still continues to be operative.
 
Narayana Guru now makes reference to a verse in his "Advaita Dipika" (Lamp of Non-Duality), which states that even when discrimination has abolished the reality of the World, it continues to be given to the senses just as to a man who has lost his sense of direction, the error could persist for some time even after the orientation has been intellectually corrected. A mistake might continue to persist for some time even after its recognition as a mistake merely by force of habit. There is also reference to another verse in the "Atmopadesa Satakam" where Narayana-Guru states the converse possibility and says that all things are real enough but that the man of philosophical disposition could comprehend the unity underlying all things.
 
This alternative case can be easily practiced and is here recommended in view of an aspirant, who, by practising this kind of Yoga for a long time until the incipient memory factors are eliminated, will accomplish the same purpose of Yoga otherwise more difficult. It is to underline the continued practice that the word nityam (always) has been used. Patanjali also underlines this same verity when he says that by long practice without interruption in a reverent spirit of service, one is capable of stabilizing certitude. Such an unceasing practice is itself Yoga. 

 

4. cittasya nirantaram tailadharavadvrittya'vicchannaya'tmani ramyate yatsayogo yogibhih smritah
 
That unbroken functioning of reason
Which in the Self, like a streak of oil
Finds incessant joy, such as Yoga
Is by yogis recognized.
 
TAILA-DHARAVAT, like the streak of flowing oil,
AVICCHANNAYA, unbroken,
CITTASYA VRITTYA, by the functioning of the reason,
ATMANI, in the Self,
NIRANTARAM, incessantly,
RAMYATE (ITI) YAT, (in that) it finds joy,
SAH YOGAH (ITI), that (as) Yoga
YOGIBHIH SMRITAH, is recognized by yogis.
 
The kind of Yoga practiced under conditions where no definite rules are observed, and where the mind still remains distracted, does not yield the results of the high state of samadhi (peace). It is not conducive to Self-realization, because of the many hindrances. Like the incessant flow of the streak of oil when poured from one vessel into another, there must be an unbroken continuity of the relation of a stilled mind, which has to be turned wholeheartedly towards its proper object of meditation with continuity And without any interruption, before Self-realization can be accomplished. In this way the practice must be continued until the goal is attained. Occasional meditation will not produce the desired result. It has been pointed out that the attainment of the goal of Yoga is accomplished only after many lifetimes of practice Thus there is the need for incessant practice. It is only when such a high state of attainment is reached that one can say that such a state as found in the texts is firmly established and one is not perturbed even by disasters.

  

5. yato yato mano yati sada'tmani tatastatah niyamya yojayedetatyogo'yam yujyatarniha
 
To which or which other (interest) the mind goes
From that or that others into the Self
Ever restraining it, it should be joined
In such Yoga here let it be united.
 
MANAH, the mind,
YATAH YATAH, from which or which other (interest),
YATI, goes,
TATAH TATAH, from that or that other,
ETAT, this (the mind),
NIYANIYA, having restrained,
SADA, always,
ATMANI, in the Self,
YOJAYET, should be joined,
AYAM YOGAH, this is Yoga,
IHA, in this here (Yoga),
YUJYATAM, let it be united (i.e. let it be joined, let samadhi be practiced).
 
As stated in the Bhagavad Gita (VI.26): 
"Whatever causes the changeful unsteady mind to go out (again and again), from each such, restraining (it again and again) it should ever be led to the side of the Self."
 
As it is difficult to keep the mind in a form of unbroken meditation on the Self, after the manner of the streak of oil that is unbroken and continuous, this alternative method of meditation is suggested in order to lighten such a difficulty. One should watch out carefully and incessantly for any change that might take place in the mind in its goings and comings. Without one being aware of it, the mind by its incipient memory disposition tends to follow one or other extraneous interest. In every such case one has to discover the straying of the mind and bring it back by force so as to establish it again in the Self. This Yoga is none other than the constant effort to bring back the mind and establish it in the Self. Such a Yoga has always to be practiced. As again stated in the Bhagavad Gita (VI.28): 
"Ever uniting thus the Self, that yogi, rid of dross, having contact with the Absolute, enjoys easily happiness that is ultimate."

  

6. sarvanarthakarah pumsam sankalpah kalpitaih saha unmulya vasanajalairyenatmani nirudhyate
 
7. drisyasya na drisostitvam ato drisyam drigatmakam iti yunjita drigrupe yah sa yogavidam varah
 
Uprooting those incipient memory factors of willing
The source of all human disasters, who
Together with their various willed objects
Restrains in the form of Self (saying):
 
What is seen has no existence as such
Thus what is seen is the Seer's self
He among knowers of Yoga
Is the most superior. 
 
6.
PUMSAM, for man,
SARVA-ANARTHA-KARAH, which is the source of all disasters, 
 
SANKALPAH, willing,
KALPITAIH, with the objects of wilful desire,
VASAN-JALAIH-SAHA, together with the various incipient memory factors belonging to the will,
UNMULYA, uprooted,
YENA, by whom,
ATMANI, in the Self,
NIRUDHYATE, is restrained.
 
7.
DRISYASYA, in visible objects,
NA ASTITVAM, there is no existence,
DRISAH (ASTITVAM ASTI), it is the seer (that has existence),
ATAH, thus,
DRISYAM DRIGATMAKAM (BHAVATI), the seen is the form of the Seer,
ITI, thus,
YAH, who,
DRIGRUPE, in the form of the Self,
YUNJITA, joins,
SAH YOGAVIDHIM VARAH, he is the knower of Yoga.
 
The act of the will is the source of all suffering. Every wilful act arises in accordance with the incipient memory factors corresponding to it. The act of willing arises in accordance with some deep seated incipient memory factor, having there lain rooted for a long time. Therefore the yogi or the man of meditation who is interested in avoiding suffering should find out by minute introspection those deep seated incipient memory factors and abolish them so as to become established in the unity of Yoga.
 
Yoga is not any form of self-torture. It is the union of the seer and the seen that is here referred to as Yoga. All that is visible is, in reality, unreal and what really exists is only the basis for such visible entities in the Self as has already been indicated in the second and third chapters. Therefore having first brought into union the visible with the seer, that is to say, seeing everything in the form of the seeing subject alone, he should remain in the form of that inner witness. It is a man who understands Yoga in this manner who is to be considered a superior kind of Yoga-knower. 
 
 
 
8. yada piban manobhringah svanandamadhumadhurim na spandati vasikritya yojito yogavayuna
 
When the mind-bee drinking
Of the nectar-sweetness of Self-
Is drawn into union with Yoga breeze
And does not flutter (Yoga takes place).
 
YADA, when,
YOGAVAYUNA, by the breeze of Yoga,
VASIKRITYA, being drawn to its side,
YOJITAH, having attained to Yoga Union,
MANOBHRINGAH, the bee that is the mind,
SVANANDA-MADHU-MADHURIM, the nectar sweetness of Self-bliss, 
 
PIBAN, while enjoying,
NA SPANDATI does not flutter,
(TADA YOGAH SYAT, then Yoga takes place).
 
The mind has been compared to the bee which keeps fluttering its wings and wanders from flower to flower attracted by any flower that it sees. The mind is also full of unsettled alternating motions and because of its random attractions to whatever interests are presented to it, has been compared to the bee for the reasons mentioned. When the bee is engaged in drinking the nectar from the flower, it attains to stillness; likewise the mind when it has attained to Self-bliss also becomes stilled. Just as the bee is carried along by the breeze, by the continued practice of Yoga the mind is also carried along to its goal of happiness. Just as the bee becomes still by the enjoyment of the honey, so the mind becomes still by the sweetness of the honey of happiness found in the Self. When such a stillness is firmly established, such a state is to be understood as Yoga. 
  
As for the term vasikritya (being attracted to its side), we have to remember that the natural tendency of the mind is to be dissipated by outward interests, and so this term applies to the withdrawal and canalizing of such dissipation. The mind is always restless and it is necessary that the yogi should insist with a determination to make it enter into union with itself. By the use of the term vayuna (by the breeze or wind), the reference is to be understood as recommending such practices as pranayama (restraint of the breath), etc. The term madhu-madhuri is to be understood as the highest bliss afforded by the Self. 

 

9. dhyanamantarbhruvordristirjihvagram lambikordhvatah yada syadkhecarimudra nidralasyadinasini
 
When meditation with gaze fixed between eyebrows,
And the tongue-tip touching beyond the uvula (take place),
Then happens (khecari mudra) that space-freedom attitude
Of drowsiness add fatigue-dispelling capacity.
 
YADA, when,
BHRUVAH, of the two eyebrows,
ANTAH, in the middle,
DHYANAM DRISTIH (CA), meditation and gaze
LAMBIKA URDHVATAH, placed beyond the uvula,
JIHVAGRAM (CA), the tip of the tongue (also),
(SYAD) take place,
(YADA) then,
NIDRA ALASYA ADI NASINI, of sleep, fatigue etc., dispelling potency,
SYAD, happens,
KHECARI MUDRA, an attitude enabling one to attain the freedom of space. 
 
What is known as khecari-mudra is a variety of meditation referring to the centre of the eyebrows. If refers to a special kind of yogic practice whereby the tongue is bent inwards as far as the roof or palate of the mouth while the tip of the tongue enters into the cavity that continues upwards from the roof part of the mouth, the insertion of the tongue being fixed above the point where the uvula starts. At the same time the centre of the eyebrows is its culminating target, and the vision and meditation are fixed together at such a centre. This practice however is to be undertaken only in the actual presence of a Guru who himself is a man who has practiced it and can actually demonstrate it to the would-be yogi. The practice of this kind of attitude called khecari-mudra is to destroy the basic tendencies which express themselves in active (rajasik) and insert (tamasik) tendencies constituting the main items such as fatigue and sleep which are hindrances to the attainment of Yoga perfection or peace (samadhi). The use of the word adi (and so on, etc.) in the above verse, is intended to cover the nine kinds of dissipations or distractions such as illness, doubt, confusion, etc., and the consequent indispositions or debilities which are five in number: depression, lassitude etc. This makes for fourteen subdivisions of hindrances. Because the centre of the eyebrows is the seat of consciousness it is very laudable to meditate with reference to that point.
 
Patanjali also says that all attainments or ends of Yoga are derivable from consciousness. It is also well known that discrimination is the guiding star for the unstable and alternating stages of phenomenal existence. It is therefore not an exaggeration to say that all the attainments derivable from other yogic practices are also inclusively covered by the cultivation of this supreme form of meditative practice which helps to magnify the power of positive consciousness, making it stronger, subtler, purer and of clearer penetration. It goes without saying that the attainment of wisdom is superior to any other form of spiritual attainment. The practice that leads to this attitude surely yields the benefits of all other secondary practices. Even by the conquest of sleep and fatigue the yogi becomes qualified in principle for all other spiritual attainments.

 

10. jnanam karmeti loke'smin dvidha yogah samasatah anayoryogavistarah, sarvah parisamapyate
 
As of wisdom or action, Yoga in this world
Is of two kinds, and within these summarily
The whole of the further elaboration of Yoga
Is comprised conclusively.
 
ASMIN LOKE, in this world,
YOGAH, Yoga,
JNANAM KARMAITI, as of wisdom and of action,
SAMASATAH, in summary fashion,
DVIDHA, in two kinds,
YOGAVISTARAH SARVAH, the whole of any further elaboration of Yoga,
ANAYOH, within these,
PARISAMAPYATE, is comprised conclusively.
 
The two divisions of Yoga are wisdom (jnana) and action (karma), characterized in the following way: 

The Yoga of wisdom is concerned with the reality underlying the principles of the Self - which are based on existence, subsistence and value or bliss. These principles have to be brought within the scope of one's experience in the form of Self-realization. This requires a discrimination between lasting and transient values in life belonging to the four prerequisites of the same kind mentioned in Vedantic texts. Such realization can take place only under conditions of detachment.
 
As for the Yoga of action (karma) it has the following characteristics: The carrying out of such necessary duties or actions which have the wisdom of the Self as the end in view and are done without any thought of enjoying the fruit and gain therefrom, as well as having no sense of bondage but rather keeping within the limit of righteousness as an offering to the Lord (isvara), such is the Yoga of action. 
 
The division made in the Bhagavad Gita (III.3) refers to this kind of principle of classification of the two kinds of Yoga and conforms and justifies the same when it says that the Yoga of wisdom of the Samkhyas and the Yoga of action of the Patanjali Yogins, are the two main disciplines found in this world since ancient times. The Yoga of wisdom has also other descriptive titles applied to it, such as jnana-yajna (the wisdom-sacrifice), samkhya-yoga (meditation based on. reason), thyaga (renunciation), sannyasa (more mature renunciation), buddhi (discrimination), buddhi yoga (meditation based on discrimination), akarma, (non-ritualism), naishkarmya (non-activity), and kevala-jnana (plain and simple wisdom).
 
In the same way the Yoga of action has other descriptive titles applied to it, such as yoga-yajna (the meditation-sacrifice) yajna (sacrifice), nishkamakarmayoga (the way of meditation which aims at no advantageous fruits thereof), and kevala-yoga (plain and simple yoga) as well as kevala-karma (plain and simple action). There is also the term dharma (righteous way of life) applied to both the Yoga of wisdom and the Yoga of action.  

In reality both are the same. The Bhagavad Gita (V.4 & 5) makes it clear that Samkhya and Yoga are to be looked upon as the same, and he who sees this alone truly sees. It also underlines that only children treat them as distinct and not well informed pandits. Even if one of these disciplines is properly accomplished the result of both of them accrues. These passages in the Bhagavad Gita treat wisdom and action as forming one discipline only. It is necessary however to have the guidance of wisdom as a primary condition. One has to recognize that all actions depend upon wisdom or intelligence. Thereafter when action is performed it has to be done with intelligence, detachment and the sense of non-active understanding. That is, one should be able to see action in inaction, and inaction in action. 

The one who is able to see these two disciplines as not being different is both a jnana-yogi and a karma-yogi. The Bhagavad Gita (IV.18) also says that the man who is able to see in action inaction; and in inaction action is a true yogi while still engaged in every kind of action. The gist of this statement and all the elaborations to which it is capable of being subjected, confirm the unity of these two disciplines.
 
All the further ramifications of the discipline of Yoga are comprised within the scope of jnana-karma-yoga (the Yoga of combined wisdom and action). Even this distinction in reality is not of much consequence. In spite of this however, in order to distinguish the way of life proper to those who adhere to philosophy and call themselves sannyasins (mature renouncers) and those who combine philosophy with their own activities correctly belonging to their own situation in life, can be more properly called karma-yogis. This distinction in nomenclature is commonly adopted in order to distinguish the two patterns of behaviour in ordinary life. On closer examination both are the same. As the Bhagavad Gita (V.5) puts it, the same point of attainment is reached by the Samkhya philosophers and the Patanjali Yogins. 
 
Although the Bhagavad Gita initially accepts the outward duality between the two disciplines, it stresses the inner unity based on the common end of both. In short, whatever action one might perform and whatever Yoga one might practise it has to be done under the auspices or guidance of intelligence. It is only for action done under such guidance that the name of karma-yoga or the Yoga of action can be applied. It is only when Yoga is accompanied by wisdom that it can be considered to be the supreme goal of human existence which is moksha (liberation) or nirvana (absorption).